Category Archives: DX
Folks, this has been a fun and hilarious winter project. Yesterday, when I built this air cannon antenna launcher it was -4 degrees outside and this was a perfect evening project to put together. For years, me and my two ham radio buddies (WR8S Bill Shultz and WV8TG Tom Graf), have enjoyed ARRL Field Day activities and usually used a slingshot and a 3/4 ounce fishing sinker weight and an old Zebco fishing reel (with 20 pound test line) to shoot and suspend our doublet dipole antennas high into the trees. Certainly, the slingshot worked pretty much flawlessly… but… boys will be boys, and the idea of an air cannon / spud launcher / potato gun type system seemed to be a new desire. (Most people, our wives included, wouldn’t trust our 3-man team with a slingshot, let alone a potato gun! But I digress.) Actually, our local ham radio club (Monongalia Wireless Association) had a version of a potato gun antenna launcher, so we decided we needed one of our own… and to make some design modifications in the interest of… “science”… plus our own sadistic pleasures. (Make sure you read below WV8TG’s initial “pressure test” experience.) The following pictures hopefully provide the basic concept and parts we used. Tom and I split the cost of the parts needed to make launchers and each built our own version, but they both are the same basic design with only length dimensions of the air chamber and barrel being the difference.
All parts where sourced from our local Lowes store in their plumbing department, except the Schrader valve which can be purchased at an automotive store. Total cost about $40 but you could make a couple of them as a joint project with a friend and reduce that cost per launcher a bit. I got a small rubber gasket for the outside nipple of the Schrade valve to act as another seal on the exterior of the air chamber. You will need to drill holes for Schrader valve, barrel slug stop and projectile slug caps to attach the screw eyes to attach the fishing line. I used 3 inch PVC for air chamber, 1.25 inch PVC for the barrel and short sections to mate the air chamber, trigger valve and threaded barrel. The projectile slugs were made from 3/4 inch PVC and caps and I filed off the nubs on the caps with a Dremel tool for a smooth fit into the barrel. I used PVC Prep on each joint before applying the glue. When gluing joints together, insert the sections together and twist a quarter turn for a solid adhesion. Let all glue set up for 24 hours before testing air pressure chamber. I will pressurize the chamber inside and let it sit overnight to see if it loses any pressure. It’s too cold right now to take outside in -4 degree temperatures to test, but I will use a bicycle pump with a pressure reading valve, and start at 40 psi… then 50 psi… and then 60 psi for test shots to see how it functions and check for any air pressure leaks. We use 60 psi for our club launcher.
WV8TG (Tom) charged his air chamber (barrel not attached) and let it set overnight to test for chamber air leakage. When he opened the trigger value… there was NO leakage… but there was a sudden LOUD release of 60 psi air gush out of a 30 inch long, 3 inch wide fully charged air chamber. He indicated the compressed air release was… impressive. However, his wife was not impressed… nor was she aware of the scientific test that was taking place. #surprise! #WHOOOOOOOSH #loudwifeexpressions I have no reason to doubt Tom will find his projectile slugs in the next county using his design. The club chamber was 12 inches long versus his 30 inch air chamber. #overkill? I designed my air chamber for 14 inches and will conduct all tests… outside. #potentialmeanwife
As soon as I get my Yaesu System Fusion FTM100-DR online, I want to mate my Bencher paddles to the new MFJ-490X Menu Driven Memory Keyer that I picked up at the 2016 Dayton Hamvention last week (May 21, 2016). I am itching to get these two toys working in some CW / More Code Contesting very soon! 5 programmable memories plus all sorts of keyer speed, weighting, side tone, hand key capability, serial number decrements, random code practice, iambic settings, etc.
(See video below!)
MFJ-490X Memory Keyer Instruction Manual
Well… the 2015 ARRL Field Day adventure is in the books… the logbooks, that is. Having experienced decades of Field Day excursions, this one takes the cake! What started out as a hot, sunny, humid Friday afternoon setting up our station high atop Chestnut Ridge, ended on Sunday afternoon having operated under conditions of torrential rains, a downward shift of 40 degrees in temperature, one antenna failure, one operator unable to man a station due to illness, a generator choked-out by all the moisture in the air and eventually walking around in a literal cloud! We had three layers of clothes on and could see our breath on Sunday morning! To say the least, it was a unique set of challenges to overcome.
Plan A was to slingshot and hang 3 doublet antennas, run 2 KX3’s for CW and PSK31, and run an Icom 7200 with a new Heil Pro 7 headset on voice. We had a 5500 watt generator and 25 gallons of fuel to keep us purring along. With 4 operators we had a good chance to keep all rigs racking up points for the duration. Laptops were ready to log and the plan sounded solid. The goal was to beat our score from Field Day 2014 and thought a good mix of voice and data would do the trick.
Our usual set-up has us mooching off of WR8S’s generosity when he goes to the trouble of of hauling his camper to the top of the mountain. We extend the awning and set up a table or two to operate from. Field Day 2014 was done via battery power and QRP mode.
The video below is a typical contest exchange using CW (Morse Code) and in the ARRL Field Day Contest an exchange of information would be the call sign of the other station, your operating mode (how many radios are you running and what sort of power and station are you running), followed by your section of the country. Then you return your own exchange to the other station and move on the to next contact by calling “CQ FD CQ FD de WT8WV WT8WV” and hope for a return of your call sign for a confirmed contact to log. CQ means “calling anyone”… FD means your are calling for the “Field Day” contest… de is French and means “from”… and WT8WV is our station’s “identifying call sign”. (You will see Bill (WR8S) make a contact and then write down the exchange from the other station on the log paper… then he begins calling CQ FD CQ FD de WT8WV using a memory keyer that he can program with the CQ message, our contact information and a thank you good bye message. He just needs to use the keyer paddles to send the other stations call sign during a contest.) Our return message to the other station to enter into their own log was, “WT8WV 2A WV”.
The pictures below tell the story of our challenges and our solutions. I have to admit I thought we were DOA when the generator croaked at 4:30 am on Sunaday… but we quickly came up with Plan X and realized WR8S had a converter in his truck! Back to battery power to finish of a good run of PSK31 and CW for 2 points each!
The original team plan was to use my new call sign WT8WV and be “3 Alpha West Virginia” but Jay got sick on Friday so we were now down 1 team member and 1 radio. Then we had a balun issue with 1 doublet antenna. So now we are WT8WV 2A WV with 2 Elecraft K3’s and 1 antenna. We decided to salvage our potential scores by focusing on PSK31 and WR8S’s speedy left hand on CW… and forgo voice comms.
You won’t believe how easy it can be! You take it in bite-size chunks of information and at your own pace. NO MORE MORSE CODE REQUIREMENT! (But Morse Code is a blast to still use and also the most efficient form of radio communication! I had to be able to send and receive 5 words per minute for the old Novice License… 13 wpm for General Class… and 20 wpm for Advanced and Extra Class licenses. There are no longer any Morse Code requirements and the Novice and Advanced Class licenses are no longer available.) For more than 100 years ham radio operators have been exploring the world and beyond from their own little ham shacks / ham station / living rooms. It never gets old and there is always something to explore!
What can you do with a ham radio? Talk to people all over the world with as little as 1 watt or less… or even 1500 watts. Assist in Emergency Communications. Assist with branches of the US Armed Forces. Build your own radios and equipment. Experiment with your own antennas. Go to fun “Hamfests and Flea Markets” to learn and get great bargains. Find new friends who are hams in your local club. Participate in the Annual ARRL Field Day Contest and exercises! Talk to the astronauts on the International Space Station. Talk to other hams around the world THROUGH many ham radio satellites orbiting the earth! Use your local VHF/UHF Repeaters to talk to family and friends from the car, handheld radio or from home. Track ham radio equipped balloon flights. Work with hams with disabilities. Refurbish or collect old time ham radio equipment. Teach others ham radio courses and/or help with exam sessions.
There are three different licenses you can obtain and they are designed in a way that as you study to get the first license, what you learn there will help you understand the next license study material. The really nice thing about it is that you will have ALL the multiple choice questions in each exam pool AND THE EXACT ANSWER TO EVERY QUESTION! That’s pretty good to have all the Q’s and A’s to study! The sample questions in your study materials are the EXACT questions you will see on the exam. A score of 74% gets you the license! There are also FREE practice exams you can take online or even from your smartphone! (I took a couple practice exams each evening as I sat watching TV in my favorite chair in my living room.) Soon the questions you have missed in the past practice exams are embedded in your brain with the correct answers reinforced! Each question will have four (4) possible answers; and on most of the questions you can just about eliminate two of the possible answers just by looking at them. (I will give you some good pointers about how to study and prepare for the exams at the end of this post! Read them before you buy any study guides or books!)
You will just need to do some interesting and fun reading, look at the questions (and the exact answers) from each chapter of the book… and before you know it you will be ready to take the exam! You are going to learn some really cool stuff each time you read the material. PLUS, as you advance to a higher class of Ham Radio license you can pick your own call sign! (In the early 1980’s my first call sign was KA8LJO from the FCC as a Novice Class licensee… then I was assigned KB8FIR by the FCC when I got my Technician Class license… and better yet, when I got my Extra Class license I picked my own call sign, WT8WV… “Whiskey Tango 8 Whiskey Victor”. I chose it for three reasons… I am fond of an occasional taste of good whiskey… I love my state of West Virginia… and phonetically it stands out and sings in a pile-up during a Ham Radio contest!)
The first license you study for is called the Technician License and the exam has only 35 questions! You will learn some very basic things about electricity, how your radio signals move through the air, some of the rules that the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) expects us to abide by for best practices, antennas, radios, the frequencies you can use in your new radio, and much more! You will gain legal access to some very good frequencies for both voice and data communication in several excellent ham bands. You could be ready to take this exam in a couple weeks of study!
The second license is called the General Class License and also has only 35 questions. This course adds to what you learned in the Technician Class study. It really dives just a bit deeper into some common things you will find will help you get more out of your antenna, radios, contesting, which ham bands magically open at specific periods of the day and year, some simply explanations of a few electronic circuits we use every day, and much more! You will also gain even MORE frequencies on the ham bands to use at your pleasure! You could be ready to take this exam in 2-4 weeks of easy study!
The third (and highest class of Ham Radio license) is called the Extra Class License and consists of a 50 question exam. This study course really dives deeper in what you have learned in the Technician and General Class license preparations. It will take a bit more time to study and prepare, and has a few more questions on the exam. You gain ALL frequencies allotted to Ham Radio communications, with several excellent niches within certain ham bands reserved for ONLY Extra Class licensees! You could be ready to take this exam in 30-60 days with some good study and practice exams under your belt!
The Amateur Radio Relay League (ARRL) also offers all sorts of study books for not only all the licenses but a myriad of way cool ham related stuff for every facet of this vast hobby! I have been a member of the ARRL for years and the monthly QST magazine alone is worth my dues! Plus you get discounts on all the other books and items. You can even find a local ham radio license class! http://www.arrl.org/find-an-amateur-radio-license-class Here is a link to the ARRL study guides for the three licenses. They are much more in-depth than the Gordon West series of license books and a good addition to your study… but I personally feel the Gordon West series in the best way to get that license quickly. Below for more information. http://www.arrl.org/ham-radio-license-manual
License Exam Study and Preparation Tips
Select which study book you will use for the license you are going to test for.
Find a quiet place to read.
Have a yellow highlighter handy to highlight things you might need to refer to for a question.
Study about 20 minutes a day. That way you won’t overload your brain!
Download a smartphone app with the ham radio practice exam questions and answers. I used this all the time whenever I had to wait around for something or someone… or in a boring meeting (once in a while).
Watch free YouTube videos to help you prepare or further understand the chapter. I have watched all of Dave Casler’s YouTube videos and they were a tremendous help to UNDERSTAND not just the question but the concept for every ham license book. He does each video by chapter or topic and they a short enough to consume in a sitting.
I highly recommend the Gordon West Technician Class License Value Pack for getting your Technician License quickly! I don’t get paid for saying this! Grin. However, I will tell your this is the best investment in getting a license you can find. Gordo makes it fun to learn and he tackles every question and answer in a way that will etch it deep in your memory. You will absolutely burn through the questions and he’ll teach you ways to remember even the questions that seem difficult for some reason. I have met him at the Dayton Hamvention and he’s a wonderful person and so helpful. He even gives you his personal telephone number to call if you have a question! I suggest burning the CD’s to an MP3 format and put them on your iPod, iPhone, Android or other device so your can listen to them anywhere… car, at lunch, on the treadmill, working out, hiking, etc. Worked for me every time I did my 30 minutes on the treadmill and lifting weights! (After I completed my Extra Class license with his book and CD’s I sold them for half-price to another General License ham in our club who is now studying with them! You could recoup some of your cost, too!)
I highly recommend the Gordon West General Class License Value Pack for getting your General Class License quickly! http://www.w5yi.org/catalog_details.php?pid=59&sort=4
I highly recommend the Gordon West Extra Class License Value Pack for getting your Extra Class License quickly! http://www.w5yi.org/catalog_details.php?pid=43&sort=4
Practice Exams, Practice Exams, Practice Exams, Practice Exams, Practice Exams!
These are free and a good way to see what areas you need to focus on so you can master a question. I did this about every evening during commercials watching TV! Great feedback on how you are progressing in your studies. When you begin scoring 80% on these practice exams you will be ready to sit for an exam! (If you buy the ARRL study books, they come with a CD with all the questions in the pool, the answers, scores your exams, shows you the areas you need to focus on, and tracks your progress by each section of the question pool.)
Getting you Ham Radio License is NOT rocket science… but it will be fun! It’s a hobby that is ageless. What happens if the cellphone towers don’t work, or if there is a prolonged power outage, or a natural disaster prevents normal communications? Ham radio operators are often the first folks getting the word out and getting the help coming in! I doesn’t have to be an expensive hobby, either! I have pieces of equipment I have either built myself or purchased dirt cheap at a flea market. I have also saved my money for some other items in my ham shack. It’s also a fun hobby to share with family, friends, and associates worldwide! GET ON THE AIR!
Click on picture below to enlarge it so you can see the frequency privileges you get with each license!
How to set up and operate a complete QRP ham radio station using the Two Tinned Tunas transmitter, Sudden Storm ][ receiver, and Tuna Helper T/R switch from http://qrpme.com/
I love Ham Radio Deluxe software! It has it ALL for your hamshack! This is serious software for the serious Ham Radio Operator. It integrates with soooooo many other Ham softwares, rigs and rotors.
The heart of Ham Radio Deluxe, Rig Control provides a customizable interface to control your amateur transceiver using its built-in computer aided control interface. Rig Control allows you to organize buttons, sliders, and drop-downs to toggle radio options, select modes and filter settings, and control various level inputs via your computer screen. HRD Rig Control brings out features buried in a modern rig’s menus, making it easy for you to optimize your rig with a few clicks of the mouse.
Rig Control takes advantage of computer control features built in by your radio’s manufacturer. Using your interface cable, Rig Control takes control of your radio to make the most of its features. It also provides the interface for the other modules of Ham Radio Deluxe to communicate with your radio: bring mode and frequency information straight into your logbook, key your radio while using exciting digital modes, and automatically adjust for Doppler shift while “working the birds.”
Logbook is a complete DX operations center. Beginning with a robust database engine, Ham Radio Deluxe Logbook screams operating convenience. Packed with features, Logbook is the ideal shack accessory for everyone from the novice rag-chewer to the most accomplished paper-hanger. Keep track of all important contact information with the click of a mouse. Look up name, QTH, and other important information about your contacts using a variety of online and offline sources. Interface with the popular QRZ.com call sign database (subscription required), a free look up service, or HRD’s SAM Callsign CD (sold separately.)
Logbook also interfaces with DX Spider cluster servers for spotting the rare ones. The Bandmap feature graphically displays spots within a band with up to 10 bands visible at once. With just a click of a mouse, swing your beam to the DX station’s heading. Once you have the rare DX in the log, integration with Trusted QSL makes uploading to Logbook of the World a snap! Downloading from LoTW is just as simple. In fact, Logbook interfaces with many popular electronic logbook services, including eQSL, HRDLog.net, and ClubLog. Logbook keeps track of many popular awards too. Logbook is packed with features!
Digital Master, formerly “DM-780,” is the all-purpose digital communications package integrated with the Ham Radio Deluxe suite. Digital Master uses your computer’s soundcard interface and radio connection to offer a wide range of communications options to the amateur radio operator. Digital Master is capable of a wide range of digital modes, including CW, RTTY, SSTV, PSK31, MT-63, and more. For the CW enthusiast, Digital Master interfaces with the popular K1EL WinKeyer. True frequency shift keying (FSK) and audio frequency shift keying (AFSK) keying are available for RTTY operation.
You can stay on top of the action with Digital Master’s SuperSweeper, allowing you to copy up to 40 QSO’s at once in CW, RTTY or PSK. Once the QSO is complete, Digital Master interfaces directly with Logbook to record the contact. Digital Master works with a variety of audio and multimode interfaces including the Timewave Navigator, SignaLink USB, and West Mountain Radio RigBlaster.
Ham Radio Deluxe’s Satellite Tracking module takes the guesswork out of satellite operations. Using the latest orbital mechanics equations and up-to-the-minute Keplerian element information downloaded from a variety of trusted sources, you can predict satellite passes with confidence. Customizable visualization keep you apprised of the satellite’s foot print, projected path, and predicted elevation for given passes. A real-time link to Google Earth allows one to see what the satellite “sees” as it flies overhead – great for presentations!
Real-time tracking feeds azimuth and elevation information directly to rotator control for automated positioning of satellite antenna systems. Satellite Tracking automatically calculates Doppler shift for the satellite’s transponders and sends tuning data to Rig Control, keeping your radio locked in the transponder’s passband.
Integrating with Logbook and Satellite Tracking, Rotator Control manages beam headings via any computer interfaced rotator controller. Many modern control boxes such as the M2 RC2800PX, Green Heron RT-2x series, Yaesu GS-232, MDS RC-1, and HyGain DCU series controllers have computer control capability. Many more can be retrofit for computer control – why not put them to work?
Rotator Control displays a Mercator or great circle projection map that enables click-to-point rotator operation. Drop-down country lists also make it easy to find those rare DX entities: simply select the country name to point your beam and start calling. Rotator Control is the finishing touch for your station integration project.
HRD Software offers multiple forms of support. You can talk to a live person by calling or emailing the support department. An email opens an automatic trouble ticket which is responded to by a member of the support team. You can check also check on your Ticket Status via the Internet. Our support team may recommend a remote session using Teamviewer to ascertain where an issue may be and to fix it. There is also the option of using the Forums for peer to peer support. HRD Software has a YouTube Channel that features several videos that can be used to help configure your system.
Updated Fixes and New Features
- Fault on connection with IP logging enabled – fixed
- Norton 360 – fixed
- LOTW upload and download – fixed
- ODBC error – fixed
- Winkey 3 Support – fixed
- FT-1200 Support added
- OMNI VI Support added
- HRD Voice
- Updated Label Maker
- ADX Support
- FT-767 GX II Support
- IC-9100 Satellite Mode to use VFO B
- WA9PIE-2 Cluster Support
- Unicode Support
- Improved K3 and KX3 Support
- Flex 6700 with SmartSDR Support
- Windows 8.1 Support
- Yaesu SCU-17 Support
- Orion KY Keyer Support
- ClubLog Support
- Dstar Icom Radios ID-3 and ID-5 Support
- FSK fixes (updated)
- PSK Reporter fixes
- Logbook and Cluster fixes
- Radio Control fixes
- Icom A/B and QSX fixes
- Line colors based on WSI in Logbook
- ID-5100 Support
- Updated License Manager
- RC fix for VCP ports
- Multiple QSO’s on a singel label
- Make your own QSL Card
- Alinco support DX SR8/9, DX77
- HRD WSI Filters
- FTDX CAT Controlled Rotors Support
Going to have to build this little rig!
20 Meters Ham Radio Band is one of the most popular bands for long range (DX) communications. It holds up in most conditions and is were a lot of exciting DX contacts OfficialSWLChannel tells us all about finding signals on the 14 MHz part of the band.
10 Meter Ham Radio Beacons (28 MHz) help us know where propagation is working in our favor for communicating around the world. OfficialSWLChannel provides another excellent video on how to take advantage of these beacons!
OfficialSWLChannel tells us what we can expect on the exciting 40 Meters amateur radio frequencies.
OfficialSWLChannel video about the activity on 80 Meters.
160 Meters is another challenging ham radio band to work. This video tells you what listen for and what to expect. This is another OfficialSWLChannel video.
This is an interesting but challenging ham radio frequency band. Sporadic E propagation is pretty cool but takes some effort. Aurora activity in the upper atmosphere helps. The Officialvhfuhfchannel does a good job on this video.
These are very handy for all sorts of your 12 volt ham radio projects!
Will be looking for these at the next hamfest!
From the U.S. National Weather Service YouTube page… click video links below…
We rely on advanced technology for almost everything we do today. Satellite communications, GPS applications, and the electric power grid provide the backbone to our Nation’s economic vitality and national security. This technology however, is vulnerable to a threat from space — our Sun. Eruptions from the Sun can have a profound impact on society. In Boulder, Colorado NOAA space weather forecasters maintain a constant vigil on the Sun, alerting a diverse customer base when storms are imminent. Operators from many sectors will take mitigating actions to protect the critical infrastructure that we have come to depend on.
An Introduction to Space Weather and the Space Weather Prediction Center
Space Weather Impacts: Communications
Space Weather Impacts: GPS
Space Weather Impacts: Power
I have helped build and used two of these Doublet Antennas during the 2014 Field Day Contest and they worked great! Worked many stations on CW, Phone, and PSK31. Works great across many HF bands. A little over 120 feet long. WR8S (Bill Shultz), WD8WQK (Tom Graf) and I are going to make one for my ham shack as soon as I order the parts. Take a look at Ray Heffer’s explanation of the Doublet Antenna and a diagram by N4UJW below.
I had the pleasure of playing with two Elecraft KX3 radios during ARRL Field Day 2014 running CW and PSK31 modes. Both radios worked like a charm off of battery power and we racked up some excellent contacts during the hours of the contest. I want to thank Bill (WR8S) and Tom (KD8WQK) for letting me get may hands on their toys! Definitely on my WISHLIST!
The KX3 HF Radio is pictured above. The optional 100 Watt Amplifier is pictured below.
Watch the Elecraft KX3 Demo Video below…
Connect the KX3 to an iPad…
John Shannon (K3WWP) kindly permits me to post his recent article here for your enjoyment. His contact information and websites are listed at the end of this article. Also, check out and join the NAQCC website at http://www.naqcc.info/
You can’t work DX on HF unless you run high power and have a big antenna farm. How many times have you heard that? Believe it or not even one ARRL employee was very skeptical about the ability to work DX otherwise. Maybe still is.
Anyway I’m writing this to dispel that notion. I also do it by example as many of you probably already know. Let me start by describing my station in detail. My rigs since I became active again in the early 1990s have been homebrew, Kenwood TS-570D, Kenwood TS-480SAT, Elecraft K-2, and now the wonderful Elecraft KX3. All have a couple things in common. They have never been used on any mode but CW. They have never been used at more than 5 watts output power (except for two experimental QSOs and one accidental one – that’s another story just mentioned here for 100% accuracy).
My antennas consist of a random wire most of which is in my attic for 160 through 30 meters, a 20 meters flat-top inverted vee in my attic, a 15 meters vertical dipole mounted on the side of my house, a 10 meters sloping dipole on my porch roof, and a 6 meters rotatable dipole in my attic. As KB7MBI puts it, that’s not an antenna farm, that’s an antenna victory garden.
With that setup I have made 19,140 DX (non-W/VE) QSOs since the early 1990s from at total of 219 countries (entities) on all continents and 36 of the 40 CQ zones. Currently as of May 29, 2014 I have made at least one DX QSO each and every day since March 1, 2013 – a total of 455 consecutive days.
With that preamble to let you know that I probably know what I’m talking about, I’m going to tell you how you can do just the same, probably even better if you have better antennas and a better location than I do. Oh, I neglected to say I don’t live on a remote hilltop somewhere, but right in the middle of a small town with its attendant man-made QRN. The town is located in a river valley with surrounding hills making a visible horizon of a couple degrees up to around 10 degrees.
I think the above proves it is possible to work DX with just 5 watts or less output and simple wire antennas. Of course it’s not as easy as working DX with 1 kilowatt and stacked 4 over 4 beams, but it’s not as hard as many hams think. I believe that ANYONE, without a great deal of effort, can get the basic DXCC award using nothing more than QRP/CW and a wire antenna. I worked 100 countries in just the first 78 days of the year 2000 as part of the ARRL Millennium Award program. Here are some tips to hopefully help you in your DX efforts.
Basically there’s not a lot you need to know to successfully work DX. First of all, a lot of good DX is only available via some high speed CW operators, so the faster you can copy, the easier it will be to work the DX station and move on to others. Of course since you don’t really have to copy a lot of info in most cases, you can get by at lower copying speeds. When you get right down to it, all you really need to copy is the DX station’s call, and your own call. But still you’ll be much better off being able to copy at least 30 WPM which is not all that hard to do with some good practice. If you can copy everything involved in the DX operation, you’ll be much more prepared to work the DX.
You also should know something about propagation as I mentioned in a previous newsletter. That way you won’t waste time in mid-afternoon trying to work DX on 80 or 40, nor time in the middle of the night trying to work something on 10 meters. Not to say there aren’t times mid-day DX on 80 or especially 40 is possible, or 10 meters DX late at night, but generally it’s not.
The most important thing to remember about DXing, no matter what power or antennas you are using, is to LISTEN before you do anything. Of course, before you can work the DX, you have to be able to hear it.
Once you find a DX station, you then LISTEN some more to find out the station’s mode of operation and just where HE is listening. For example, if you hear him work a station right on his frequency, then you know he’s listening there. Zero beat him and get ready to call, but again don’t jump in too quickly.
LISTEN to find out the pattern of the DX station’s exchange. When the DX is trying to work as many stations as possible as quickly as possible, the exchange should go like this:
Station – Sends
X2XXX – CQ DX X2XXX K
K3WWP – K3WWP
X2XXX – K3WWP 599
K3WWP – TU 599
X2XXX – TU
Sometimes after the exchange of info, the DX station will just say TU as in this example, and then start listening for replies. Other times he will send QRZ?, or QRZ? de X2XXX, or just X2XXX. Some stations send dit dit. Whatever it is, learn when the DX station is done with a QSO and ready for the next call before you jump in. Do everything right and you’ll have your QSO or at least a better chance at the QSO than someone who has no idea what is going on.
Of course that is the ideal situation, and it is not going to work that way every time, even for the most powerful station in the world, and certainly not for the QRPer with his wire antenna. Not to say it doesn’t happen, though. A few times I have beaten out a fair sized pileup to work a DX station. Why? Often it is simply favorable propagation, but there are also things you can do to help.
Be sure your signal is as clean and crisp as possible and your keying is as close to perfect as possible. DX stations often mention that it is not always the strongest signal that is easiest to copy in a pileup. Often a weaker clean signal with perfect keying is easier to copy. If you have a memory keyer, use that to send your call. It is possible to get nervous when trying for some rare DX, and be sloppy sending even our own call.
Another thing that helps at times is to delay for a second sending your call so that the last letter or two extends past the main buzz of the pileup. In my case, the DX station would then hear the WP and send WP? Then I send my call again, and make the QSO. That is assuming there is no other WP in the pileup, and everyone acts properly and does not transmit again if their call doesn’t contain a WP. And we know the odds of that. Generally anyone who has a W in their call transmits, everyone with a P transmits, and others will transmit even though their call has nothing close to a WP in it. The best of the DX stations in this case will send WP? KN KN and keep doing this until everyone else shuts up except the WP station. If a DX station does this often enough, he can really take control of a pileup and make it manageable.
If you’re totally aware of what is going on, you can sometimes catch a station switching from simplex to split (more about that below) operation, and be one of the first ones to switch. I’ve several times gotten an easy DX QSO that way. Or catching a station switching to another band and being the first one to do so and working him easily. Again that gets back to LISTENING which a lot of folks seem not to do.
If you keep calling him without an answer, try to figure out why. It could be that propagation is currently favoring another area. If he is working one W6 after another, and you are a W1, that could be the case or he may have his beam pointed to California at the moment. This is a good time to just note his frequency or store it in a memory in your receiver, and look for someone else. Come back later and see if the DX station is working stations in your area. If so, jump in and try again.
Some QRP stations like to sign /QRP at the end of their call in a pile-up. I don’t think it’s necessary, and I NEVER do it for the following reasons:
1. I don’t feel my QRP should be pointed out as a special situation. I’m just another station in the pile, not someone special because I’m only using 5 watts or less.
2. I am sure some QRO stations cheat and sign /QRP, and I certainly don’t want to be accused of that by those who don’t know that I am a 100% QRPer.
3. It does take an appreciable amount of time to send /QRP when you are dealing with running hundreds of stations per hour, especially if it has to be repeated. If I make a contact, there’s a chance I’ll have to repeat
my info since my sigs are weak, and repeating /QRP along with the other info may annoy not only the DX station, but others waiting in the pile. I hate slowing down DXpeditions or contesters like that.
4. To back up what I say in item 3 above, famous DXpeditioner G3SXW in his book “Up Two” urges operators calling him not to use /QRP. Then there is this quote from the 3B9C DXpedition web site to further denounce using /QRP: “We have received a few e-mails demanding that we amend logs to show /QRP. We are aware that some operators at 3B9C have been logging /QRP but it is DXpedition policy that we do not do so. /QRP does not form part of the legal callsign in any country and, as far as we are aware, no QRP awards require the callsign to be suffixed with /QRP. Therefore the /QRP suffix has no place in the 3B9C DXpedition log. You know whether you worked us on QRP or not and that should be all that is needed.”
If a pileup gets too huge and the pile obliterates the DX station, then the DX operator will switch to split frequency operation. This is when the DX station transmits on one frequency, and listens on another, usually higher, frequency.
If you hear a DX station say UP (or UP1, UP2, etc.), that means he is listening to a frequency higher than his. The number is the number of kHz higher than his transmitting frequency. Leave your receive frequency on the DX station, and set your transmit frequency UP to where the DX is listening. If he just says UP with no number, generally that means UP 1, but not always. Then you have to find the pileup yourself. Once you determine where the DX station is listening, follow the same procedures listed for simplex or same frequency operation. Just be sure you are transmitting and listening on the right frequencies. Every rig seems to have a slightly different way of accomplishing this. I’ll describe two ways it can be done with a KX3.
1. Tap the A>B button twice to copy the A VFO frequency and settings into the B VFO. Hold in the A>B button to activate split operation. Now the A VFO shows the receive frequency, and B can be tuned with the B VFO knob to set the transmit frequency. Then if desired, the headphones can be split via a menu setting so the DX is heard in the left ear and the pile in the right ear. That way you can hear who the DX is working in the pile in your right ear and the KX3 will then be set to transmit on that frequency.
2. Use the XIT feature to offset the transmit frequency from the receive frequency.
I always use #1 above, so I’m not totally familiar with XIT operation.
If the pileup is huge, you might be better off transmitting slightly higher than the main pile. The DX station will often explore the upper (usually) edge of a pileup if he can’t pick out calls from the main section of the pile. This is where the clever QRPer can often steal a QSO from the QRO stations. It’s really a chess game, and whole sections of DXing books have been devoted to breaking a pileup.
Often times the DX station will be operating split frequency but not saying so. This is where listening comes in. If you hear the DX working one station after another, but don’t hear any of the stations he is working, it’s time to tune UP and see if he is indeed working split frequency. Or you can go ahead and transmit on the DX frequency, and the self appointed DX policemen will very impolitely and illegally tell you the DX is listening UP. It’s always better to know what’s going on before you do any transmitting.
That’s enough about the pile-up type of DXing. If you want to know more, just get on the air and practice, or read one of the many excellent books that have been written about DXing.
Let’s touch on a few other DX topics at random. What about the QRPer calling CQ DX using his wire antenna. It’s probably useless most of the time, but I have had DX stations answer my regular CQ’s many times. This usually happens on 10M when conditions are really good, but it also happens on other bands. I currently have about 3 dozen countries worked via answers to my CQ’s. Strangely, my most distant QSO ever came when VK6HQ answered my regular CQ on 30M one evening. I was so shocked and excited I could hardly send. Even after the QSO, I was wondering if it was really true that I worked a VK6. It was, because I received his QSL card in a couple of weeks. However something like that is the exception rather than the rule for QRP CQ’s. Once in a while lightning strikes twice and a couple years later John, VK6HQ again answered my CQ on 30M. This time it led to a long distance phone call from John, and follow up Emails between us. This is one of the rewards of DXing – having one of your contacts become a friend.
The easiest time to work DX is in contests, because the best operators in the world often go to exotic locations for contests to make themselves more desirable or just to activate some rare country. Plus you have the super contest stations in various countries operating with their huge antennas and state of the art receiving equipment. They are the ones who can dig out the weakest of signals, and are glad to do so for those few extra points they will get in the contest. Those points may just help them beat out another top notch contester. You may have a tough time beating the pileups at the beginning of a contest, but often these super contest stations almost go begging for QSO’s near the end of a contest period. Then is the time you may easily work them.
Also for the week or so just before the big DX contests, many of the stations setting up for the contest will check out their equipment by working as many folks as possible. At these times they may also operate on the WARC bands (30, 17, 12) which are not available for operation in the contest itself. They often stay at their locations for a few days after contests also.
Always let the DX station dictate the type of QSO. If you answer a DX station outside a pileup, and he still sends just a report, you do the same. You will earn the respect of the DX station and those working him. There’s nothing more frustrating that having a DX station send only RST and the station working him sending seemingly his entire life history. If the DX station does send something like RST, QTH, and Name (OP), then you may be fortunate enough to find yourself with a DX rag chew. Send your QTH (maybe just the state), and name, and maybe mention you are running QRP. It doesn’t happen too often, but I have had some very nice rag chews with DX stations. I recall a few I especially enjoyed. I chatted for a half hour with a German who was on vacation in the Canary Islands. A PJ2 wanted to know all about my QTH. I had a nice chat with an Italian talking about my Italian heritage (my mother was Italian). A German asked me all about my QRP rig. A station in Haiti was new to operating CW and asked me several questions about it.
There were others as well. These are the DX QSO’s I find really rewarding, although I appreciate the RST only ones also. You CAN rag chew with DX using QRP when conditions are good.
There’s much more good info about DXing on my web site at http://home.windstream.net/johnshan/. I hope you’ll visit. I also hope you’ll be as successful as I have been working DX. I KNOW you can be if you just apply yourself.
73 and gud DX.
* John K3WWP – 100% CW / QRP – Proudly promoting Morse Code:
* On the air with my KX3 #2325, K2 #6418, KX-1 #02101
* As NAQCC VP – # 0002 FC # 1 – http://naqcc.info/
* As FISTS Keynote QRP Columnist – # 2002 – http://www.fists.org/
* With my CW-QRP site – http://home.windstream.net/johnshan/